Commonest hearing disorders: How they manifest themselves and how they are treated

Loss is a symptom of a variety of diseases affecting the hearing organ or its nervous connection to the brain. “It may be caused by problems affecting the transmission of sound through the drum and the bones of hearing (stars) to the sensory instrument of hearing called bolting (heavy conduction) or may be due to problems in the screw and auditory nerve, which connects the screw to the brain (neurasthetic barecoia)”, explains George Constantinidis Otorinolaryngologist, Director IV Otorinolaryngological Clinic, Clinical Surgical Head and Tracheal Metropolitan General. What causes hearing loss? ‘In children’, it complements ‘the most common type of hearing loss is the severe conduction. This is usually due to fluid trapping behind the eardrum. Rarely, children may be born with poorly formed middle ear bones or these structures may be destroyed by ear infections. Gravity conduction in adults is less frequent, but may be due to problems with hearing bones or occasionally in fluid collection behind the drum. The intense accumulation of wax in the auditory duct may also cause mild severe conduction. A chronic otitis that harms bones can lead to severe conductivity through formation of cholesteatoma, where contaminated skin develops around bones. This can limit the movement of the bones or even damage their structure and connections. There are other conditions that may affect the bones, for example the bone of the stirrup can cling to the surrounding bone, which prevents the transmission of sound. This is a condition called otosclerosis. Neurosensory hearing loss is due to loss of cells that perceive sound in the screw (hair cells) or nerve damage that carries hearing signals to the brain. There are many causes of this type of hearing loss. Hearing loss in elderly people is neurosensory and is due to loss of hairy cells by aging. It is the most common cause of hearing loss in adults. Neurosensory loss may also be due to excessive exposure to noise, professional or leisure. Other causes of neurosensory gravitation are drug ear toxicity and certain infections. Children may also suffer from neurosensory fatigue and some of these are hereditary disorders that may exist even at birth. It may vary from mild hearing loss to deafness. Finally, hearing loss may be due to a combination of neurosensory hearing and severe conduction, so in this case the severity is characterised by a mixed type. Some types of neurosensory hearing loss require urgent treatment. Ask for medical advice immediately if: • You suddenly lose hearing, i.e. within just a few hours or days • If your hearing loss is associated with ear secretions, dizziness or ear pain” What are the symptoms? Most adults first begin to notice difficulty in attending a conversation when there is noise in the background or when they speak more than one person. They are also forced to strengthen the intensity of television. Gravity is often isolated and limits his social associations. Heavy – hearing children may appear careless and naughty, ignore the instructions, and increase the intensity of television. Young children with delayed speech production should always be evaluated for hearing loss. Diagnosis and treatment The diagnosis is made by an ENT physician who will be able to examine your ears in detail with the help of a microscope and conduct the necessary hearing tests that will lead to the diagnosis. Special hearing tests should be performed on all newborns before they leave the infirmary. “The tests help determine the nature and severity of hearing. Hearing loss is classified in mild, moderate, large and severe. Treatment depends on the severity and type of hearing. In severe conduction there may be an infection or another disease to be treated. The treatment may include surgery, both to treat infection and to restore hearing” the expert explains. In many cases, the use of hearing aids is recommended. These are released in various sizes and types to suit different users and audio needs. Technology in hearing aids is constantly improving to be more discreet and to offer better sound quality. For some patients with specific types of hearing loss surgical implantation of headphones may be recommended. These devices include hearing aids adapted to bones and cochlear implants. “In conclusion, there is a solution available for almost everyone who has hearing problems. Particularly important is the early restoration of hearing in the elderly, as surveys in recent years show that hearing is the most important modifying factor leading to dementia,” concludes Mr. Constantinidis.